Neutrino dust

It is the current understanding that the universe came into being in a hot big bang event. All matter initially existed as a very hot “soup” (or plasma) of charged particles – protons and electrons. The neutral atom (mostly hydrogen) only appeared after the soup cooled off a bit. At that point, the light that was produced by the thermal radiation of the hot matter had a chance to escape being directly re-absorbed.

Much of that light is still around today. We call it the microwave background radiation, because today that light has turned into microwave radiation as a result of being extremely Doppler-shifted toward low frequencies. The extreme Doppler-shift is caused by the expansion of the universe that happened since the origin of the microwave background radiation.

It is reasonable to assume that the very energetic conditions that existed during the big bang would have caused some of the hydrogen nuclei (protons) to combine in a fusion process to form helium nuclei. At the same time, some of the protons are converted to neutrons. The weak interaction mediates this process and it produces a neutrino, the lightest matter particle (fermion) that we know of.

So what happened to all these neutrinos? They were emitted at the same time or even before the light that caused the microwave background radiation. Since neutrinos are so light, their velocities are close to that of the speed of light. While expansion of the universe causes the light to be red-shifted, it also causes the neutrinos, which have a small mass to be slowed down. (Light never slows down, it always propagates at the speed of light.) Eventually these neutrinos are so slow that they are effectively stationary with respect to the local region in space. At this point they become dust, drifting along aimlessly in space.

While, since they do have mass, the neutrinos will be attracted by massive objects like the galaxies. So, the moment their velocities fall below the escape velocity of a nearby galaxy, they will become gravitationally bound to that galaxy. However, since they do not interact very strongly with matter, they will keep on orbiting these galaxies. So the neutrino dust will become clouds of dust in the vicinity of galaxies.

Hubble Space Telescope observes diffuse starlight in Galaxy Cluster Abell S1063NASAESA, and M. Montes (University of New South Wales)

Could the neutrino dust be the dark matter that we are looking for? Due to their small mass and the ratio of protons to neutrons in the universe, it is unlikely that there would be enough neutrinos to account for the missing mass attributed to dark matter. The ordinary neutrino dust would contribute to the effect of dark matter, but may not solve the whole problem.

There are some speculations that the three neutrinos may not be the only neutrinos that exist. Some theories also consider the possibility that an additional sterile neutrino exists. These sterile neutrinos could have large masses. For this reason, they have been considered as candidates for the dark matter. How these heavy neutrinos would have been produced is not clear, but, if they were produced during the big bang, they would also have undergone the same slow-down and eventually be converted into dust. So, it could be that there are a lot of them drifting around aimlessly through space.

Interesting, don’t you think?

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