Quantum teleportation

One of the most iconic quantum phenomena is quantum teleportation. But the reason why it is so iconic has nothing to do with the idea behind “beam me up, Scotty.”  In quantum teleportation, it is only the state of matter that is being transferred and not the matter itself. Usually, it is the state of light (a photon) that is being teleported. Quantum teleportation is iconic because it involves a mechanism that reveals a truly quantum nature.

How does it work? The state to be teleported is represented by photons that are specially prepared for the purpose. You can think of some light source that produces photons having specific properties that represent their state. We shall label one such photon as A. The resource that will mediate the teleportation process is a different bunch of photons representing an entangled state. This entangled state consists of a pair of entangle photons, which we label as B and C, respectively. To perform the process of teleportation, all we need to do is to make a joint measurement of photons A and B. It is the nature of this joint measurement that makes the process of quantum teleportation possible. The information that we obtain from this measurement tells us what transformation to perform on C to reproduce the state of A. Sometimes, we would not need to make any transformation. The state of C would already be that of A.

So, let’s look a little more carefully at the nature of the joint measurement. What do we mean by a joint measurement? To understand what it means, we need to discuss the state of photon A . There are many different possible states that this photon can have. All such states are collected into a set that we call a Hilbert space. Any of the states in this set can be represented as a superposition of a small set of states that we call a basis. One way to determine the state of a photon is the measure how much of each of these basis elements are required to make up the state of the photon. Such measurements are called projective measurements.

To understand joint measurements we just need to generalize our understanding of projective measurements a bit. What the measurement instrument in a teleportation experiment sees is not just A, but A and B together. The Hilbert space for the combination of the states of these two photons consists of all the combinations of all the states from their respective Hilbert spaces. One can produce a basis for the combined Hilbert space by combining the elements of the respective bases. There are different ways to do that, including some that would cause the elements of the combined basis to be entangled states. That is the key for quantum teleportation. One needs to make projective measurements of the combined state in a basis where the elements are themselves entangled.

Why would projective measurements in terms of an entangled basis cause teleportation? This mechanism is what makes teleportation an amazing process. It involves the multiple-reality nature of the quantum world. The entangled resource state can be interpreted in terms of such multiple realities. What joint measurements are doing to knit these multiple realities together with those presented by the input state A. But the latter is just one state (one reality), therefore, in the ideal case, only one of the realities of the resource state will survive the measurement process, the one where C has the same state as A. In a less ideal case, bits and pieces of A will be distributed over different realities. In that case, one can reconfigure the different realities with the aid of a unitary transformation on C, such that A becomes associated with just one reality in which C would then have the same state as A. The outcome of the joint measurement would tell us which unitary transformation to perform to achieve the necessary reconfiguration.

How does one make projective measurements in terms of an entangled basis? That is challenging, but people have identified at least two ways to do that. The first process and the one most often used is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. It is accomplished with the aid of a beamsplitter, causing a quantum interference effect. If two photons are observed simultaneously from the two output ports, then it signals the detection of a special entangled state called a Bell state, which implies a successful teleportation. The benefit of this method is that it does not require any unitary transformation of C.

Another way to perform a joint measurement is with the aid of the inverse of a process that would produce entangled states. In quantum optics, most entangled photon states are produces with the aid of a nonlinear optical process called parametric down-conversion. The inverse process is parametric up-conversion (also called sum frequency generation). While down-conversion converts a single incoming photon into two photons that are entangled to maintain energy and momentum conservation, the up-conversion process takes two incoming photons and combine them into one photon. A successful up-conversion implies a projection unto an entangled state to maintain energy and momentum conservation. Therefore, it can also be used for quantum teleportation. However, the process of up-conversion is very inefficient.

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