… or not?
In this final posting in the series on transcending the impasse in fundamental physics, we need to consider the possibility that we may never be able to transcend the impasse. Perhaps this is it as far as our scientific understanding of fundamental physics in concerned. Perhaps our ability to probe deeper into the unknown ends here.
Why would that be? Perhaps the theory that would correctly explain what happens above the electroweak scale would need observations at an energy scale that is too high to reach with conceivable colliders. Without such observations, the theory may remain in the status of a hypothesis and never become part of our scientifically established knowledge.
It seems that collider physics has run its course. The contributions to our scientific knowledge made with the aid of colliders are truly remarkable. But, at increasing higher energies, it runs into a number of serious challenges. At such high energies, a collider needs to be very large and extremely expensive. As a result, it becomes impractical and financially unjustifiable.
Even if such a large expensive collider does become a reality, the challenges do not end there. The scattering events produced in such a collider become increasingly complex. Already at the Large Hadron Collider, the scattering events look more like the hair on a drag queen’s wig. The amount of data produced in such events is formidable. The rate at which the data is generated become unmanageable.
Even if one can handle that much data, then one finds that the signal is swamped by background noise. At those high energies, particles are more unstable. It means that their peaks are very broad and relatively low. So it becomes that much harder to see a new particle popping up in the scattering data.
There are suggestions of how scientific observations can be made to support high-energy physics without the use of colliders. One such suggestion is based on astronomical observations. There are high energies generated in some astronomical events. However, such events are unpredictable and the information that can be extracted from these event is very limited compared to what is possible with the detectors of colliders.
Another suggestion is to use high precision measurements at lower energies. It becomes a metrology challenge to measure properties of matter increasingly more accurate and use that to infer what happens at high energies.
Whether any of these suggestions will eventually be able to increase our knowledge of fundamental physics remains to be seen. But I would not be holding my breath.
Perhaps it sounds like that old story about those 19th century physicists that predicted the end of physics even before the discoveries of relativity and quantum mechanics. Well, I think the idea that a steady increase in our physical understanding in perpetuity is equally ludicrous. At some point, we will see a slow-down in the increase of our understanding of fundamental physics, and even in physics in general. However, applied physics and engineering can proceed unabated.
We are already seeing a slow-down in the increase of our understanding of fundamental physics. Many fields of physics are already mostly devoted to applied physics. Very little is added in terms of new fundamental understanding of our physical universe. So, perhaps the impasse is simply an inevitable stage in the development of human culture, heralding to maturity of our knowledge about the universe in which we live.