Transcending the impasse, part I

The current impasse in fundamental physics stifles progress. The rate of advances in our understand has slowed down. Although several exotic predictions have been made in recent years, none of these seem to be correct. Have we reached the end of our ability to learn more about the universe we live in?

It has been suggested that the way forward is to go back and fix what is wrong. Is there then something wrong with what we’ve learned before? Apparently yes. We are biased by what we think we know. It misleads us to conjure up theories that cannot work.

How is this possible? Would such misconceptions not have been ruled out by experimental observation? That’s the problem. Much of what we think we know never got tested by experimental observations.

As an example, one is reminded of all the aspects of quantum physics that is not currently understood. Yes, we know enough about quantum mechanics (the mathematical formalism) to do calculations. The problem is that we then go and interpret what we see. That part cannot be tested by experiments.

For example, in certain interpretations of quantum mechanics it is believed that the wave function collapses to produce (or because of) the result we observed. Nobody really knows how this works. This is the measurement problem, which is currently a hot topic in quantum foundations.

But is this even science? How is this going to help us move forward? It occurs to me that these types of problems require us to step out of this struggle and get some distance from it. I said elsewhere that wisdom is the path to knowledge. Perhaps we need to get the metaphysics right before we will be able to get the physics right. We need to separate that which we can learn from a scientific approach from that which cannot be investigated scientifically.

Perhaps there is not such a clear cut distinction between those aspects of quantum physics that can and cannot be studied scientifically. However, it is not difficult to see where we are bound to waste much time with potentially limited or no advances.

In the following posts, I intend to address some specific aspects of the current impasse and how it impacts our current understanding. Although I’m not a fan of philosophy, some of these discussions may touch on some philosophical aspects of the topic – the metaphysics – in as far as it may show us the way.

Mopping up

The particle physics impasse prevails. That is my impression, judging from the battles raging on the blogs.

Among these, I recently saw an interesting comment by Terry Bollinger to a blog post by Sabine Hossenfelder. According to Terry, the particle physics research effort lost track (missed the right turnoff) already in the 70’s. This opinion is in agreement with the apparent slow down in progress since the 70’s. Apart from the fact that neutrino’s have mass, we did not learn much more about fundamental physics since the advent of the standard model in the 70’s.

However, some may argue that the problem already started earlier. Perhaps just after the Second World War. Because that was when the world woke up to the importance of fundamental physics. That was the point where vanity became more important than curiosity for the driving force to do research. The result was an increase in weird science – crazy predictions that are more interested in drawing attention than increasing understanding.

Be that as it may. (I’ve written about that in my book.) The question is, what to do about that? There are some concepts in fundamental physics that are taken for granted, yet have never been established as scientific fact through a proper scientific process. One such concept pointed out by Terry is the behaviour of spacetime at the Planck scale.

Today the Planck scale is referred to as if it is establish scientific fact, where in fact it is a hypothetical scale. The physical existence of the Planck scale has not and probably cannot be confirmed through scientific experiments, at least not with out current capability. Chances are it does not exist.

The existence of the Planck scale is based on some other concepts that are also not scientific facts. One is the notion of vacuum fluctuations, a concept that is often invoked to come up with exotic predictions. What about the vacuum is fluctuating? It follows from a very simple calculation that the particle number of the vacuum state is exactly zero with zero uncertainty. So it seems that the notion of vacuum fluctuations is not as well understood as is generally believed.

Does it mean that we are doomed to wander around in a state of confusion? No, we just need to return to the basic principles of the scientific method.

So I propose a mopping up exercise. We need to go back to what we understand according to the scientific method and then test those parts that we are not sure about using scientific experiments and observations. Those aspects that are not testable in a scientific manner needs to be treated on a different level.

For instance, the so-called measurement problem involves aspects that are in principle not testable. As such, they belong to the domain of philosophy and should not be incorporated into our scientific understanding. There are things we can never know in a scientific manner and it is pointless to make them prerequisites for progress in our understanding of the physical world.